Hindus from ancient times until now always use certain symbols to be able to connect himself with Ida Sang Hyang Widhi Wasa (The One Almighty God). In Hinduism, the symbol known as the word ‘niasa’ is used as meanings for a specific embodiment. It is not only the Hinduism people that uses symbols for certain meanings, many other civilizations also use symbols to describe what they believe. The shape and type of symbols used are different, but have the same function. The definition of Penjor according to I.B. Putu Sudarsana can be given the meaning of the Pengajum or Pengastawa, then lose the nas letter J to Ny so that it becomes the word, Penyor which means as to carry out Pengastawa.
- Balinese people know two (2) types of penjor, specifically: Sacred Penjor, the penjor used as a means of religious ceremonies such as ceremony Galungan and Piodalan in Temple. The sacred memorandum used should be in accordance with the requirements from generation to generation.
- Ornament Penjor, the penjor used for village events, art festivals, welcoming guests, and other non-sacred referrals. The penjor is usually made only to show aesthetics without thinking of the required prerequisites like the sacred penjor.
The discussion will be narrowed down only on penjor for the Galungan ceremony. Hindus people in Bali will always make penjor to welcome the feast of Galungan day. Penjor for the Galungan ceremony is planted on Tuesday / Anggara wara / Wuku Dungulan known as Penampahan Galungan day which means victory of dharma (good) against adharma (evil). Penjor is plugged in the right side of the entrance yard. When the house faces north, then penjor plugged on the east entrance of the yard. Sanggah and the crown of the tip from the penjor facing the road. The penjor is a bamboo with a curved tip, adorned with a young janur and other leafage (plawa). The penjor materials is include Pala Bungkah (the tubers such as sweet potatoes), Pala Gantung (such as coconut, cucumber, banana, and pineapple), Pala Wija (such as corn and rice), jajan (Snack), and Sanggah Ardha Chandra made from bamboo and a rectangular shape complete with its sesajen (offerings). Sampiyan hung on the tail end complete with Porosan and flowers.
The purpose of the penjor installation is to realize the sense of Hindus Swadharma (devotion) and to thank for the kindness Ida Sang Hyang Widhi Wasa. Tall curved bamboo is a picture of the highest mountain as a sacred place. The ornaments consisting of coconut, banana, sugarcane, rice, snack and cloth are representative of all vegetation, clothing, and food items endowed by Ida Sang Hyang Widhi Wasa. Seen in terms of penjor is a symbol of the land with all the results, which provides life and safety. The land is described as two Naga (dragons) namely Naga Basuki and Naga Ananta Bhoga.
Based on the description, creating a penjor for sacred purposes, requires certain requirements. The penjor must be made in accordance with the provisions of the Religion. Indeed the elements of the penjor are sacred symbols, as the basis for the application of Veda (Vedic) teachings, to reflecting the ethical values of Hinduism. The elements of the penjor are the following symbols as:
- White cloth contained in penjor as a symbol of the Hyang Iswara’s
- Bamboo as the symbol of the Hyang Brahma
- Coconut as a symbol of the Hyang Rudra’s
- Janur as a symbol of the Hyang Mahadewa’s
- Plawa (leafage) as a symbol of the Hyang Sangkara’s
- Pala Bungkah, Pala Gantung as a symbol of the Hyang Wisnu’s
- Sugar cane as a symbol of the Hyang Sambu’s
- Sanggah Ardha Candra as a symbol of the Hyang Siwa’s
- Upakara (Ceremony) as a symbol of the Hyang Sadha Siwa’s strength and Parama Siwa’s
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Pratama, KHS., Marbun, S. 2016. Komodifikasi Penjor sebagai Sarana Persembahyangan Umat Hindu. Jurnal Studi Kultural Vol 1(2): 110-115
Widiastini, NMA. 2013. Memenjor Tradition, The Constestation and Implication to Hindu’s Community in Bali. Humaniora Vol 25(3): 237-248